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About 113,310 results

Enterococci enhance Clostridioides difficile pathogenesis.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9691601
Nature Smith AB, Jenior ML et. al.

Nov 18th, 2022 - Enteric pathogens are exposed to a dynamic polymicrobial environment in the gastrointestinal tract1. This microbial community has been shown to be important during infection, but there are few examples illustrating how microbial interactions can influence the virulence of invading pathogens2. Here we show that expansion of a group of antibiotic-resistant, opportunistic pathogens in the gut-the ...

Evolution of immune genes is associated with the Black Death.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9580435
Nature Klunk J, Vilgalys TP et. al.

Oct 20th, 2022 - Infectious diseases are among the strongest selective pressures driving human evolution1,2. This includes the single greatest mortality event in recorded history, the first outbreak of the second pandemic of plague, commonly called the Black Death, which was caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis3. This pandemic devastated Afro-Eurasia, killing up to 30-50% of the populat...

Emergence of Tn1999.7, a New Transposon in blaOXA-48-Harboring Plasmids Associated with...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9664867
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy; Sattler J, Tsvetkov T et. al.

Oct 7th, 2022 - OXA-48 is the most common carbapenemase in Enterobacterales in Germany and many other European countries. Depending on the genomic location of blaOXA-48, OXA-48-producing isolates vary in phenotype and intra- and interspecies transferability of blaOXA-48. In most bacterial isolates, blaOXA-48 is located on one of seven variants of Tn1999 (Tn1999.1 to Tn1999.6 and invTn1999.2). Here, a novel Tn1...

SARS-CoV-2 disrupts host epigenetic regulation via histone mimicry.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9533993
Nature Kee J, Thudium S et. al.

Oct 6th, 2022 - Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged at the end of 2019 and caused the devastating global pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), in part because of its ability to effectively suppress host cell responses1-3. In rare cases, viral proteins dampen antiviral responses by mimicking critical regions of human histone proteins4-8, particularly those containing ...

Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances enhance Staphylococcus aureus pathogenicity and imp...
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2022.120294
Environmental Pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987); Mangu JCK, Stylianou M et. al.

Oct 2nd, 2022 - Per- and Poly-fluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are major persistent environmental contaminants. Epidemiological studies have linked PFAS exposures to altered immunity and increased occurrence of infections in children. However, the mechanisms leading to immune susceptibility to bacterial infections remains unclear. To elucidate the mechanism, transcriptional alteration in the Caenorhabditis elegan...

Active antibiotic resistome in soils unraveled by single-cell isotope probing and targe...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9546533
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the Un... Li HZ, Yang K et. al.

Sep 27th, 2022 - Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in soils represents a serious risk to human health through the food chain and human-nature contact. However, the active antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) residing in soils that primarily drive AMR dissemination are poorly explored. Here, single-cell Raman-D2O coupled with targeted metagenomics is developed as a culture-independent approach to phenotypically and ...

Label-free single-particle imaging approach for ultra-rapid detection of pathogenic bac...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9546574
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the Un... Chen S, Su YW et. al.

Sep 27th, 2022 - Rapid detection of pathogenic bacteria within a few minutes is the key to control infectious disease. However, rapid detection of pathogenic bacteria in clinical samples is quite a challenging task due to the complex matrix, as well as the low abundance of bacteria in real samples. Herein, we employ a label-free single-particle imaging approach to address this challenge. By tracking the scatter...

Beta Human Papillomavirus 8 E6 Induces Micronucleus Formation and Promotes Chromothripsis.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9555153
Journal of Virology; Dacus D, Stancic S et. al.

Sep 22nd, 2022 - Cutaneous beta genus human papillomaviruses (β-HPVs) are suspected to promote the development of nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) by destabilizing the host genome. Multiple studies have established the genome destabilizing capacities of β-HPV proteins E6 and E7 as a cofactor with UV. However, the E6 protein from β-HPV8 (HPV8 E6) induces tumors in mice without UV exposure. Here, we examined a UV-i...

Common human genetic variants of APOE impact murine COVID-19 mortality.
https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-022-05344-2
Nature Ostendorf BN, Patel MA et. al.

Sep 22nd, 2022 - Clinical outcomes of severe acute respiratory syndrome 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection are highly heterogeneous, ranging from asymptomatic infection to lethal coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The factors underlying this heterogeneity remain insufficiently understood. Genetic association studies have suggested that genetic variants contribute to the heterogeneity of COVID-19 outcomes, but the under...

The Sialyl Lewis X Glycan Receptor Facilitates Infection of Subtype H7 Avian Influenza ...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9555156
Journal of Virology; Guan M, Olivier AK et. al.

Sep 21st, 2022 - Subtype H7 avian influenza A viruses (IAVs) are enzootic in wild aquatic birds and have caused sporadic spillovers into domestic poultry and humans. Here, we determined the distribution of fucosylated α2,3 sialoglycan (i.e., sialyl Lewis X [SLeX]) in chickens and five common dabbling duck species and the association between SLeX and cell/tissue/host tropisms of H7 IAVs. Receptor binding analyse...

The Spike-Stabilizing D614G Mutation Interacts with S1/S2 Cleavage Site Mutations To Pr...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9555207
Journal of Virology; Gellenoncourt S, Saunders N et. al.

Sep 20th, 2022 - Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) remained genetically stable during the first 3 months of the pandemic, before acquiring a D614G spike mutation that rapidly spread worldwide and then generating successive waves of viral variants with increasingly high transmissibility. We set out to evaluate possible epistatic interactions between the early-occurring D614G mutation a...

Molecular Determinants of Tissue Specificity of Flavivirus Nonstructural Protein 1 Inte...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9555157
Journal of Virology; Lo NTN, Roodsari SZ et. al.

Sep 16th, 2022 - Members of the mosquito-borne flavivirus genus such as dengue (DENV), West Nile (WNV), and Zika (ZIKV) viruses cause distinct diseases and affect different tissues. We previously found that the secreted flaviviral nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) interacts with endothelial cells and disrupts endothelial barrier function in a tissue-specific manner consistent with the disease tropism of the respect...

How deadly is monkeypox? What scientists know.
https://doi.org/10.1038/d41586-022-02931-1
Nature Kozlov M

Sep 14th, 2022 - How deadly is monkeypox? What scientists know.|2022|Kozlov M,|mortality,virology,pathogenicity,

Identification of trypsin-degrading commensals in the large intestine.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9477747
Nature Li Y, Watanabe E et. al.

Sep 8th, 2022 - Increased levels of proteases, such as trypsin, in the distal intestine have been implicated in intestinal pathological conditions1-3. However, the players and mechanisms that underlie protease regulation in the intestinal lumen have remained unclear. Here we show that Paraprevotella strains isolated from the faecal microbiome of healthy human donors are potent trypsin-degrading commensals. Mec...

The Amino Acid at Position 95 in the Matrix Protein of Rabies Virus Is Involved in Anti...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9517722
Journal of Virology; Kojima I, Onomoto K et. al.

Sep 8th, 2022 - Stress granules (SGs) are dynamic structures that store cytosolic messenger ribonucleoproteins. SGs have recently been shown to serve as a platform for activating antiviral innate immunity; however, several pathogenic viruses suppress SG formation to evade innate immunity. In this study, we investigated the relationship between rabies virus (RABV) virulence and SG formation, using viral strains...

Role of FruR transcriptional regulator in virulence of Listeria monocytogenes and ident...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9439231
PloS One; Abdelhamed H, Ramachandran R et. al.

Sep 3rd, 2022 - Listeria monocytogenes is a ubiquitous opportunistic foodborne pathogen capable of survival in various adverse environmental conditions. Pathogenesis of L. monocytogenes is tightly controlled by a complex regulatory network of transcriptional regulators that are necessary for survival and adaptations to harsh environmental conditions both inside and outside host cells. Among these regulatory pa...

Dysregulated naive B cells and de novo autoreactivity in severe COVID-19.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9630115
Nature Woodruff MC, Ramonell RP et. al.

Sep 1st, 2022 - Severe SARS-CoV-2 infection1 has been associated with highly inflammatory immune activation since the earliest days of the COVID-19 pandemic2-5. More recently, these responses have been associated with the emergence of self-reactive antibodies with pathologic potential6-10, although their origins and resolution have remained unclear11. Previously, we and others have identified extrafollicular B...

SARS-CoV-2 variant spike and accessory gene mutations alter pathogenesis.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9477415
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the Un... McGrath ME, Xue Y et. al.

Aug 31st, 2022 - The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic is a major public health crisis. Despite the development and deployment of vaccines against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the pandemic persists. The continued spread of the virus is largely driven by the emergence of viral variants, which can evade the current vaccines through mutations in the spike protein. Although these difference...

Key role of exportin 6 in exosome-mediated viral transmission from insect vectors to pl...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9457540
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the Un... Lu H, Zhu J et. al.

Aug 30th, 2022 - Exosomes play a key role in virus exocytosis and transmission. The exportin family is usually responsible for cargo nucleocytoplasmic trafficking, and they are frequently found in exosomes. However, the function of exportins sorted in exosomes remains unknown. Here, we successfully isolated "cup holder"-like exosomes from the saliva of ∼30,000 small brown planthoppers, which are vectors of rice...

Genomic characterization and pathogenicity analysis of a porcine deltacoronavirus strai...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9419129
Archives of Virology; Wang Z, Li S et. al.

Aug 28th, 2022 - Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) is an enteric virus that was first identified in 2012. Although PDCoV has been detected worldwide, there is little information about its circulation in western China. In this study, fecal samples were collected from piglets with watery diarrhea in western China between 2015 and 2018 for the detection of PDCoV. The positive rate was 29.9%. A PDCoV strain (CHN/CQ/...