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Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) - Diagnosis and treatment - Mayo Clinic

Apr 23rd, 2020 - Diagnosis If you develop symptoms of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and you've been exposed to the virus, contact your doctor. Tell him or her if you've traveled to any areas with ongoing community spread of COVID-19 according to CDC and WHO. Also let your doctor know if you've had close contact with anyone who has been diagnosed with COVID-19. Factors used to decide w...

Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19): What Is It, Symptoms, Prevent

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a virus (more specifically, a coronavirus) identified as the cause of an outbreak of respiratory illness first detected in Wuhan, China. Overview What is coronavirus? Coronaviruses are a family of viruses that can cause respiratory illness in humans. They get their name, “corona,” from the many crown-like spikes on the su...

Patient education: The common cold in children (Beyond the Basics)
Diane E Pappas

COMMON COLD OVERVIEW The common cold is the most common illness in the United States. Infants and children are affected more often and experience more prolonged symptoms than adults. The common cold accounts for approximately 22 million missed days of school and 20 million absences from work, including time away from work caring for ill children. This topic review discusses the causes, symptoms...

Patient education: Meningitis in children (Beyond the Basics)
Sheldon L Kaplan

MENINGITIS OVERVIEW Meningitis is the medical term for inflammation of the tissues (meninges) that surround the brain and spinal cord. The inflammation is most commonly caused by a virus or a bacterium, which travels from an infection in another part of the body through the bloodstream to the meninges. The treatment and long-term outlook of meningitis differ considerably based upon the cause. M...

Patient education: Symptoms of HIV infection (Beyond the Basics)
Paul E Sax

OVERVIEW OF HIV SYMPTOMS It is important to recognize symptoms of HIV as soon as possible since early diagnosis and treatment will prevent serious illness. Early treatment will also reduce your chances of transmitting the virus to others. This article discusses the early signs and symptoms of HIV and the groups that are at risk for becoming infected with HIV. A separate article discusses testin...

Patient education: Tuberculosis (Beyond the Basics)
Claire Murphy

TUBERCULOSIS OVERVIEW Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It most commonly affects the lungs, although it can affect other parts of the body. Medications are available to treat TB and must be taken as prescribed by your provider. Depending on the medication(s) prescribed, the duration can be from four months to nine months or more. Worldwide, TB rem...

Patient education: Peptic ulcer disease (Beyond the Basics)
Sheila E Crowe

PEPTIC ULCER DEFINITION Peptic ulcers are open sores in the upper part of the digestive tract (figure 1) that can cause stomach pain or stomach upset, and that can lead to internal bleeding. There are two types of peptic ulcers: ●Gastric ulcers, which form on the lining of the stomach ●Duodenal ulcers, which form on the lining of the upper part of the small intestine (called the “duodenum”) I...

Patient education: Arthritis and exercise (Beyond the Basics)
Maureen R Gecht-Silver

ARTHRITIS AND EXERCISE OVERVIEW Exercise is known to have benefits for people with arthritis. However, many people with arthritis do not exercise, often because of joint or muscle pain, weakness, fatigue, or joint swelling. This can lead to loss of joint motion, stiffness, and muscle weakness and tightness. These problems can worsen fatigue and can cause joints to become unstable. However, exer...

Patient education: West Nile virus infection (Beyond the Basics)
Lyle R Petersen

INTRODUCTION West Nile (WN) virus is an infection that primarily affects birds. Humans and other animals can also become infected, usually after being bitten by a mosquito that previously bit an infected bird. WN virus was first discovered in Uganda in 1937, but it became a household term in the United States in 1999 when the first cases were reported in New York City [1]. Human cases of WN vir...

Patient education: Initial treatment of HIV (Beyond the Basics)
John G Bartlett

HIV TREATMENT OVERVIEW Finding out you have HIV infection can be an overwhelming experience filled with worry about the future, concern for loved ones, and fears of dying. However, current treatment regimens have significantly improved the prognosis of HIV infection. In fact, living with HIV is similar to living with other chronic diseases, such as diabetes or high blood pressure; when HIV is c...

Patient education: Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (Beyond the Basics)
Stephen J Gluckman

INTRODUCTION Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a disorder that causes unexplained, persistent, and sometimes debilitating fatigue. It is also known as myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS). There is evidence of underlying abnormalities in the nervous system, the immune system, and metabolic function in people with the condition. However, it can be difficult to diagnose CFS...

Patient education: Urinary tract infections in adolescents and adults (Beyond the Basics)
Thomas M Hooton

URINARY TRACT INFECTION OVERVIEW The urinary tract includes the kidneys (which filter the blood to produce urine), the ureters (the tubes that carry urine from the kidneys to the bladder), the bladder (which stores urine), and the urethra (the tube that carries urine from the bladder to the outside) (figure 1). Urinary tract infections (UTIs) happen when bacteria get into the urethra and travel...

Patient education: Avoiding infections in pregnancy (Beyond the Basics)
Richard H Beigi

INTRODUCTION Like all adults and children, pregnant women are at risk for developing viral and bacterial infections. Infections are a particular concern during pregnancy since some infections are more severe in pregnant women or may harm the fetus or newborn. However, you can take steps to decrease the chance of developing a potentially harmful illness during pregnancy. AVOIDING EXPOSURE TO INF...

Patient education: Preventing opportunistic infections in HIV (Beyond the Basics)
John G Bartlett

INTRODUCTION Infection with HIV reduces the immune system's ability to fight infections. Certain bacteria, viruses, fungi, and other organisms, which do not usually cause infections in healthy people, can cause infections in people with a weakened immune system; these are called "opportunistic" infections. One way to measure the strength of the immune system of a patient with HIV is to measure ...

Patient education: Adult vaccines (Beyond the Basics)
Patricia L Hibberd

INTRODUCTION Pediatric vaccine programs in the United States have been extremely successful against a range of contagious diseases, including measles, rubella, tetanus, diphtheria, and poliomyelitis; fewer than 500 children die in the United States each year of vaccine-preventable diseases. However, healthy adults also require regular vaccines. As many as 50,000 to 70,000 adults die annually of...

Patient education: Genital herpes (Beyond the Basics)
Mary A Albrecht

WHAT IS GENITAL HERPES? Genital herpes is a common sexually transmitted disease that is caused by the herpes simplex virus. It is estimated that at least one in five adults in the United States is infected with the virus, but many people have no symptoms and do not realize that they are infected. After getting infected, most people have recurrent episodes of genital ulcers for several years. Al...

Patient education: Food poisoning (foodborne illness) (Beyond the Basics)
David WK Acheson

FOOD POISONING OVERVIEW Microbial foodborne illness, or food poisoning, occurs commonly throughout the world. It is estimated that, in the United States alone, approximately 48 million episodes occur annually, resulting in approximately 3000 deaths per year. Close to one in five episodes of diarrhea is likely to be due to a foodborne disease. This means that the average person in the United Sta...

Patient education: Chickenpox prevention and treatment (Beyond the Basics)
Mary A Albrecht

CHICKENPOX OVERVIEW Many people remember either having chickenpox or seeing it on someone else. The itchy, red bumps caused by varicella, the chickenpox virus, are hard to miss. Before the vaccine became available, more than 90 percent of people had the infection by the time they were 15 years old. Today, thanks to the advent of the varicella vaccine, chickenpox is relatively rare. This article...

Patient education: Testing for HIV (Beyond the Basics)
Paul E Sax

HIV TESTING OVERVIEW Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing is used to determine if you are infected with HIV. Some individuals who are at the highest risk for HIV have not been tested, usually because they do not realize that they are at risk. Others avoid testing because they are worried about the possibility of a positive test result. However, testing is encouraged because treatment for ...

Patient education: Gestational diabetes (Beyond the Basics)
Celeste Durnwald

INTRODUCTION Insulin is a hormone whose job is to enable glucose (sugar) in the bloodstream to enter the cells of the body, where sugar is the source of energy. All fetuses (babies) and placentas (afterbirths) produce hormones that make the mother resistant to her own insulin. Most pregnant women produce more insulin to compensate and keep their blood sugar level normal. Some pregnant women can...