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Update Alert 4: Masks for Prevention of Respiratory Virus Infections, Including SARS-CoV-2, in Health Care and Commun...
https://www.acpjournals.org/doi/10.7326/L20-1429
Annals of Internal Medicine; Chou R, Dana T et. al.

This is the fourth update alert for a living rapid review on the use of masks for prevention of respiratory virus infections, including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), in health care and community settings (1). The first 3 updates wer...

Masks for Prevention of Respiratory Virus Infections...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7322812
Annals of Internal Medicine; Chou R, Dana T et. al.

Jun 24th, 2020 - Recommendations on masks for preventing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vary. To examine the effectiveness of N95, surgical, and cloth masks in community and health care settings for preventing respiratory virus infections, and effects of reuse or extended use of N95 masks. Multiple electronic databases, ...

Implementing Mitigation Strategies in Early Care and Education Settings f...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7737684
MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report; Coronado F, Blough S et. al.

Dec 10th, 2020 - The Head Start program, including Head Start for children aged 3-5 years and Early Head Start for infants, toddlers, and pregnant women, promotes early learning and healthy development among children aged 0-5 years whose families meet the annually adjusted Federal Poverty Guidelines* throughout the United States.† These programs are funded by grants administered by the U.S. Department of Health...

Endemic Non-SARS-CoV-2 Human Coronaviruses in a Community-B...
https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2020-009316
Pediatrics Grimwood K, Lambert SB et. al.

Sep 5th, 2020 - The coronavirus (CoV) disease 2019 pandemic has drawn attention to the CoV virus family. However, in community settings, there is limited information on these viruses in healthy children. We explored the epidemiology of the 4 endemic (non-severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV 2) human corona...

Barriers and facilitators to healthcare workers' adherence with infection prevention...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7173761
The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews; Houghton C, Meskell P et. al.

Apr 21st, 2020 - This review is one of a series of rapid reviews that Cochrane contributors have prepared to inform the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic. When new respiratory infectious diseases become widespread, such as during the COVID-19 pandemic, healthcare workers' adherence to infection prevention and control (IPC) guidelines becomes even more important. Strategies in these guidelines include the use...

Cloth Masks Provide Inferior Protection vs Medical Masks, Suggests Evidence Review
https://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/943980

Jan 11th, 2021 - Editor's note: Find the latest COVID-19 news and guidance in Medscape's Coronavirus Resource Center. Cloth masks should not be considered equivalent to medical masks for the prevention of COVID-19 in clinical settings, according to an evidence review published Jan. 11 in Annals of Family Medicine "Health care workers are at the frontline and they need t...

A comprehensive review of the impact of COVID-19 on human reproductive biology, assiste...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7694590
Journal of Ovarian Research; Madjunkov M, Dviri M et. al.

Nov 28th, 2020 - Currently, the world is in the seventh month of the COVID-19 pandemic. Globally, infections with novel SARS-CoV-2 virus are continuously rising with mounting numbers of deaths. International and local public health responses, almost in synchrony, imposed restrictions to minimize spread of the virus, overload of health system capacity, and ...

Perioperative Considerations in Urgent Surgical Care of Suspected and Confirmed COVID-19 Orthopaedic Patients
https://emedicine.medscape.com/viewarticle/931336

Abstract and Introduction Abstract By April 7, 2020, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 was responsible for 1,383,436 confirmed cases of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), involving 209 countries around the world; 378,881 cases have been confirmed in the United States. During this pandemic, the urgent surgical require...

Perioperative Considerations in Urgent Surgical Care of Suspected and Confirmed COVID-19 Orthopaedic Patients
https://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/931336

Abstract and Introduction Abstract By April 7, 2020, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 was responsible for 1,383,436 confirmed cases of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), involving 209 countries around the world; 378,881 cases have been confirmed in the United States. During this pandemic, the urgent surgical require...

Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Sub-Saharan Africa.
https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0036-1592126
Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine; Aston SJ, Rylance J

Dec 13th, 2016 - Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in sub-Saharan Africa is a common cause of adult hospitalization and is associated with significant mortality. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence in the region leads to differences in CAP epidemiology compared with most high-income settings: patients are younger, and coinfection with tuberculosis and opportunistic infections...

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) 
https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/2500114-print

Jun 4th, 2020 - Practice Essentials Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is defined as illness caused by a novel coronavirus now called severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2; formerly called 2019-nCoV), which was first identified amid an outbreak of respiratory illness cases in Wuhan Ci...

Prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission in resource-limited settings
https://www.uptodate.com//contents/prevention-of-mother-to-child-hiv-transmission-in-resource-limited-settings
Patricia M Flynn

INTRODUCTION — Studies of the use of antiretroviral agents to interrupt HIV transmission were initiated in the early 1990s in the United States and other resource-rich countries. Coupled with the avoidance of breastfeeding and good access to comprehensive HIV and pregnancy care services, these regimens have significantly reduced perinatal transmission in resource-rich countries to one to...

Hepatitis A virus infection: Treatment and prevention
https://www.uptodate.com//contents/hepatitis-a-virus-infection-treatment-and-prevention
Sanjiv Chopra

INTRODUCTION — Hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection is prevalent in many developing countries and is among the most common preventable infections acquired by travelers (figure 1). Tools for prevention of HAV infection include vaccination, immune globulin, and attention to hygienic practices. Humans are the only known reservoir for HAV; therefore, the virus could be erad...

Microbial Co-infection Uncommon With Coronavirus Infection
https://emedicine.medscape.com/viewarticle/930282

NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - Bacterial or fungal co-infection is uncommon in patients with SARS-CoV-2 or other coronavirus infections, according to a new review. "Despite this, 72 in every 100 patients with COVID-19 receive antibiotics during their hospital admission," Dr. Alison Holmes of Hammersmith Hospital and Imperial College London told Reuters ...

Microbial Co-infection Uncommon With Coronavirus Infection
https://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/930282

May 11th, 2020 - NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - Bacterial or fungal co-infection is uncommon in patients with SARS-CoV-2 or other coronavirus infections, according to a new review. "Despite this, 72 in every 100 patients with COVID-19 receive antibiotics during their hospital admission," Dr. Alison Holmes of Hammersmith Hospital and Imperial College London told Reuters ...

Respiratory syncytial virus infection in older adults: an under-recognize...
https://doi.org/10.1007/s40266-015-0258-9
Drugs & Aging; Branche AR, Falsey AR

Apr 8th, 2015 - Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is an enveloped, single-stranded, negative-sense RNA virus and member of the Paramyxoviridae family of the genus Pneumovirus that was first reported as a major pathogen in pediatric populations. However, since its discovery, RSV has not infrequently been detected in adults. Reinfection occurs throughout life, with more sever...

Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus: Virology, pathogenesis, and epidemiology
https://www.uptodate.com//contents/middle-east-respiratory-syndrome-coronavirus-virology-pathogenesis-and-epidemiology
Kenneth McIntosh

INTRODUCTION — In September 2012, a case of novel coronavirus infection was reported involving a man in Saudi Arabia who was admitted to a hospital with pneumonia and acute kidney injury in June 2012 [1]. Only a few days later, a separate report appeared of an almost identical virus detected in a second patient with acute respiratory syndrome and acu...

Treatment of community-acquired pneumonia in adults who require hospitalization
https://www.uptodate.com//contents/treatment-of-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-adults-who-require-hospitalization
Thomas M File

INTRODUCTION — Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is defined as an acute infection of the pulmonary parenchyma in a patient who has acquired the infection in the community, as distinguished from hospital-acquired (nosocomial) pneumonia (HAP). CAP is a common and potentially serious illness [1-5]. It is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality, particularly in older adu...

Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Latin America.
https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0036-1592076
Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine; Iannella HA, Luna CM

Dec 13th, 2016 - Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) region. Poverty, socioeconomic factors, and malnutrition influence the incidence and outcome of CAP in LAC. In LAC, Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most frequent microorganism responsible for CAP, (incidence: 24-78%); the incidence of atypical microorganisms ...

Hepatitis A virus infection in adults: Epidemiology, clinical manifestations, and diagnosis
https://www.uptodate.com//contents/hepatitis-a-virus-infection-in-adults-epidemiology-clinical-manifestations-and-diagnosis
Michelle Lai

INTRODUCTION — Hepatitis A infection is caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV). Humans are the only known reservoir. HAV infection is usually a self-limited illness that does not become chronic. Fulminant hepatic failure occurs in less than 1 percent of cases. Infection confers lifelong immunity and is preventable via vaccination. HAV is a member of the genus Hepatovirus in the fam...