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ALLMedicine: Sars Center

What is the risk of acquiring SARS-CoV-2 from the use of public toilets?
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8192832/
The Science of the Total Environment; Dancer SJ, Li Y et. al.

Jun 11th, 2021 - Public toilets and bathrooms may act as a contact hub point where community transmission of SARS-CoV-2 occurs between users. The mechanism of spread would arise through three mechanisms: inhalation of faecal and/or urinary aerosol from an individual shedding SARS-CoV-2; airborne transmission of respiratory aerosols between users face-to-fa...

Effectiveness of Face Mask or Respirator Use in Indoor Public Settings for Prevention o...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8830622
MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report; Andrejko KL, Pry JM et. al.

Feb 11th, 2022 - The use of face masks or respirators (N95/KN95) is recommended to reduce transmission of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19 (1). Well-fitting face masks and respirators effectively filter virus-sized particles in laboratory conditions (2,3), though few studies have assessed their real-world effectiveness in preventing acquisition of SARS-CoV-...

Burden, risk assessment, surveillance and management of SARS-CoV-2 infection in health ...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7538852
Infectious Diseases of Poverty; Calò F, Russo A et. al.

Oct 9th, 2020 - Health workers (HWs) are at increased risk for severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and a possible source of nosocomial transmission clusters. Despite the increased risk, the best surveillance strategy and management of exposed HWs are not yet well known. The aim of this review was to summari...

Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitors and Angiotensin Receptor Blockers and the Risk...
https://doi.org/10.1097/MJT.0000000000001319 10.1101/2020.05.06.20092957 10.1101/2020.06.11.20125849 10.1101/2020.04.09.20059964 10.2020.2005.2006.20093260
American Journal of Therapeutics; Tleyjeh IM, Bin Abdulhak AA et. al.

Jan 5th, 2021 - SARS-CoV-2 infects its target cells via angiotensin converting enzyme 2 receptor, a membrane-bound protein found on the surface of many human cells. Treatment with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) or angiotensin receptors blockers (ARB) has been shown to increase angiotensin converting enzyme 2 expression by up to 5-fold. These findings coupled ...

Risk for SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Healthcare Workers, Turin, Italy
https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/27/1/20-3027_article

Dec 21st, 2020 - The ongoing coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic is having an unprecedented impact on the worldwide population. Seroconversion for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was described to occur 7–14 days after onset of symptoms, 100% within 19 days after clinical onset (1). Recent serologic data suggest that, in aff...

Effectiveness of Cloth Masks for Protection Against Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2
https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/26/10/20-0948_article

Sep 17th, 2020 - As a result of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, supplies of medical masks and respirators are limited globally. Medical/surgical masks and respirators are commonly used as protection against respiratory and other infections. The main difference in these 2 products is the intended use. Medical masks are used in both healthcare and community settings to protect fr...

Hand washing and sanitizing not enough: Close that toilet lid after flushing!
https://www.eurekalert.org/news-releases/933625

Nov 2nd, 2021 - Thorough hand washing and sanitising are now second nature thanks to COVID-19, but a new study has also highlighted the dangers of open toilet lids, uncovered rubbish bins and defective plumbing drains in spreading infections in public washrooms. A global review of the risks of bacterial and viral transmission in public bathrooms has found that bioaerosols can potentially be trans...

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 Prevalence, Seroprevalence, and Exposure among Evacuees from Wuhan, China, 2020
https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/26/9/20-1590_article

Aug 18th, 2020 - On December 31, 2019, a cluster of severe pneumonia cases in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China, was reported (1). On January 7, 2020, a novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), was isolated from samples associated with the cluster (2,3). As of May 1, 2020, a total of 3,175,207 coronav...

Increase in people's behavioural risks for contracting COVID-19 during the 2021 New Yea...
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8814428
BMJ Open; Takahashi S, Yamada S et. al.

Feb 5th, 2022 - There has been no study in Japan on the predictors of risk for acquiring SARS-CoV-2 infection based on people's behaviour during the COVID-19 pandemic. The aim of this study was to document changes in risk behaviour during the New Year's holiday season in 2021 and to identify factors associated with high-risk behaviour for infection...

Transmission of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 to Close Contacts, China, January–February 2020
https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/27/9/20-2035_article

Aug 17th, 2021 - Transmissibility of an emerging infectious disease is a key factor for determining transmission dynamics in a population. The basic reproductive number, R0, indicates the average number of new cases resulting from 1 infected person in a completely susceptible population (1). In December 2019, an outbreak of coronavirus disease (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respirato...

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 Transmission in Georgia, USA, February 1–July 13, 2020
https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/27/10/21-0061_article

Sep 19th, 2021 - Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). After it was first reported in Wuhan, China, in December 2019, COVID-19 spread rapidly across the world as an ongoing global pandemic. As of July 9, 2021, most confirmed COVID-19 cases (33,79...

Clinical Questions about COVID-19: Questions and Answers | CDC
https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/hcp/faq.html

Nov 3rd, 2021 - What are you looking for?. × COVID-19 Risk. Who is at risk for infection with SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19? Currently, those at greatest risk of infection are persons who have had prolonged, unprotected close contact (i.e., within 6 feet for 15 minutes or longer) with a patient with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, rega...

Three Emerging Coronaviruses in Two Decades The Story of SARS, MERS, and Now COVID-19
https://emedicine.medscape.com/viewarticle/926915

In the past two decades, the world has seen three coronaviruses emerge and cause outbreaks that have caused considerable global health consternation. Coronaviruses are enveloped, nonsegmented, single-stranded, positive-sense RNA viruses that have a characteristic appearance on electron microscopy negative staining Image 1. As a matter of fact, the characteristic electron microscopy appearance w...

Overview of Testing for SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) | CDC
https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/hcp/testing-overview.html

Nov 3rd, 2021 - Note: This document is intended to provide guidance on the categories of viral testing and intended uses of testing for SARS-CoV-2 in light of additional testing capacity throughout the country and does not address decisions regarding payment for or insurance coverage of such testing. Summary of Recent Changes. Updates as of October 22, 2021 Base...

Providing post-lung transplant care during the time of COVID-19.
https://doi.org/10.12968/bjon.2021.30.16.976
British Journal of Nursing (Mark Allen Publishing); Winward S, Lawrie I et. al.

Sep 14th, 2021 - The COVID-19 pandemic is a public health emergency of international concern. Solid organ transplant recipients have been identified as being at high risk of acquiring the virus SARS-CoV-2 and having a more severe COVID-19 disease. This article describes the experience of the National Lung Transplant Centre in Ireland in changing established care pathway...

Transmission of SARS-CoV 2 During Long-Haul Flight
https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/26/11/20-3299_article

Oct 17th, 2020 - During the first 6 months of 2020, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spread to almost all countries and infected »4 million persons worldwide (1). Air travel is contributing to the extent and speed of the pandemic spread through the movement of infected persons (2–4); consequently, in March, ...

Community-Based Testing Sites for SARS-CoV-2 - United States, March 2020-November 2021.
https://doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm7049a3
MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report; Miller MF, Shi M et. al.

Dec 10th, 2021 - Immediately following the March 13, 2020 declaration of COVID-19 as a national emergency (1), the U.S. government began implementing national testing programs for epidemiologic surveillance, monitoring of frontline workers and populations at higher risk for acquiring COVID-19, and identifying and allocating limited testing resources. Effective testing supports identi...

MERS: Preventing Spreading in Homes & Communities | CDC
https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/mers/hcp/home-care-patient.html

Oct 30th, 2021 - The following interim guidance may help prevent Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) from spreading among people in homes and in communities. The interim guidance is based on what we currently know about other viral respiratory infections and MERS-CoV. CDC will update this interim guidance as additional information becomes available. This interim guidance...

Rapid Transmission of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 in Detention Facility, Louisiana, USA, May–June, 2020
https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/27/2/20-4158_article

Jan 23rd, 2021 - Correctional and detention facilities face unique challenges for controlling severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus that causes coronavirus disease (COVID-19). These challenges include an inability for incarcerated or detained persons to socially distance and an ongoing risk for virus introduction ca...

Flight-Associated Transmission of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 Corroborated by Whole-Genome Sequencing
https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/26/12/20-3910_article

Nov 19th, 2020 - On March 21, 2020, the Western Australia Department of Health was notified that 6 passengers aboard a flight from Sydney, New South Wales, to Perth, Western Australia, Australia, on March 19 had tested positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) by PCR. All 6 passengers had disembarked fro...